Deck Thinning

Sadly, yes.

Many card games share similar concepts such as Card Advantage, Tempo, Subgames, Perfect Information, and Pressure. One that not all card games share is Deck Thinning. This is the act of removing cards that would be considered unneeded from the deck in order to increase the chances of drawing into cards one should need. Inversely, it is the act of increasing the probability of drawing cards you need. From what we know about probability, one also knows that having a lower pool of cards directly increases the “chunking” size of probability to draw unaffected copies. In card games like Yu-Gi-Oh, you start with a very small pool of 40 cards, draw on opening turn 6 cards, and leave a remainder of 34 for you to thin. In deckbuilding, you can place cards inside that directly search copies of themselves or other cards and that is their only purpose. These are pure deck thin cards that serve to virtually make your total deck size smaller while still remaining legal.

If you’re not at all familiar with Yu-Gi-Oh, you can skip this paragraph. Using things like “Gather Your Mind” can decrease the total deck size by 3 cards. Using “Toon Table of Contents” and a random “Toon” monster can decrease it by 4 cards. It’s virtual because this can fail once or twice as you could draw more than one copy of these self-searchers and be unable to get the rest, therefore not thinning as much. But assuming ideal conditions, you could stack these cards in your deck building choice to further some overall goal. A Forbidden One win condition would serve the best use as it directly benefits from stacking multiple effects. Other decks often take the advantage where they can get it such as Agents using Venus to weed out Shine Balls (and usually get more utility from them after that).

However, Yu-Gi-Oh and other similar games are not Cardfight Vanguard. These games are wildly different and we cannot assume that the concepts for one wholly or partially transfer to another. Instead, we must re-evaluate each concept for each game we attempt to apply it to. Vanguard’s deck pool is initially 50 for construction purposes, but automatically “thins” by 1 by removing the Starting Vanguard—making it 49 cards for calculation purposes. Then you draw an opening of 6, and your deck size is 43. A whole 9 cards higher initially than Yugioh.

From there, you proceed to draw up to 2 cards per turn, and probably damage 1 per intermittent turn as well. That’s -3 from the deck each turn for two turns and sometimes an extra one due to Draw trigger or soul charging. The average deck would be at about 38 just before the start of Turn 3 depending on if you go first or second. At that point, an additional card is now removed each turn due to Twin Drive. So -4 each turn at the start of Mid Game, and that means you have 24 cards left in the deck by Turn 6, which is usually the maximum number of turns before both players get at least 4 damage and enter Late Game. You can’t assume to take 1 damage every single turn from the start of the game since that would be impossible. Events like Draw Triggers, Heal Triggers, drawing skills, and soulcharging skills almost even out the number of average cards per turn to -4 but not quite. So the number by Late Game can vary slightly between  ±3 cards.

I say all of this to get you familiar with the number of cards expected to be in the deck at the start of each Subgame. Start of Early is 43 cards. Start of Mid is 38 cards. Start of Late is 24 cards. This is going to be considerably more cards at the start of Late if you run no Draws, no soulcharging, and no ways to remove extra cards from the deck. Especially if you run ways to put cards into the deck like Tsukuyomi and Galahad. Those decks are helped considerably less by Deck Thinning, so take all of the following calculations as less reliable for their Thinning purposes. What we want to do now is take this skeleton template of deck size per subgame and determine how much thinning has to occur during a given subgame to make a difference.

Willing your triggers to you? Real life does not work that way

What do I mean by “make a difference”? Well, first we need a clear goal. In games like Yu-Gi-Oh, deck thinning just occurs to get to your limited powerful cards and key cards. Vanguard isn’t like that at all. Many cards in Vanguard are almost just as key as another card. As long as you get the proper rides (which all happens in Early game), then you probably won’t care too much about what specific cards you draw, and will more care that you draw cards that fit a certain template (like making a proper column, getting shield, getting a Perfect Guard, etc). The only things we really want to make sure we get are trigger effects. You want that Power +5000, those criticals, those draws, those heals, and those stands. The abusing chance article already goes over the standard approximate trigger checking probabilities. We’re going to start from Mid game and determine the number of cards you have to thin during a turn to make a significant difference. This will be defined as a difference that can be matched by having an extra Drive Check. Anything less is not going to be felt over 1 time during a given game, and any cards you would purposefully add to the deck to that end would be wasted.

At least 1 trigger check in twin drive with 13 triggers in a 37 card deck: ~58.6%
Exactly 2 triggers check in twin drive with 13 triggers in a 37 card deck: ~11.7%

This is the standard so far. Using 38 or 37 cards makes not much of a difference. At 38, it’s ~57.3%. A 1/100 difference isn’t anything. We have to make an estimate of how much thinning should occur (deck size down, trigger size remaining constant) in order to get something significant. At Mid game, a significant increase is yet another drive check chance.

At least 1 trigger check in triple drive with 13 triggers in a 37 card deck: ~72.7%

Now that is what I call significant. We have to determine Mid game’s thinning amount to reach that number, 72.7%, which is ~14% increase. Late game sees an approximate difference of 15% (accumulated decimal amounts), so that will be our standard for it. Starting at the next turn of Mid game, let’s assume we had thinned some.

At least 1 trigger check in twin drive with 12 triggers in a 33 card deck: ~60.2%

So that is the standard. Now let’s assume a thin of 5.

At least 1 trigger check in twin drive with 12 triggers in a 28 card deck: ~68.3%

Nope, 8% is not of sigificant value yet. Let’s assume a total thin of 8.

At least 1 trigger check in twin drive with 12 triggers in a 25 card deck: 74%

So at the earliest time most decks can thin, you need to thin 8 cards for the approximate probabilistic increase of 3 checks that turn. This seems to hold true for a given turn. So it should be sufficient to split the 8 thins up over any number of Mid-game turns to increase the total number of drive checks during that subgame by a virtual 1 check. Mid Game can last 1-5 turns, but usually only 3-4. We’ll be assuming 4, to give the deck thinning as much chance at success as possible. This would mean you need to thin 2 cards per turn as early as you possibly can. Things like actually drawing do not count as thinning since drawing a card can hit a trigger. Thinning only counts if you don’t hit a trigger with it. Out of a total of 8 natural drive checks, thinning 2 cards per turn increases you to 9 virtual drive checks. I would not say that this is very significant. We can’t really press our luck either since so few decks are equipped to thin better than 2 per turn on average. Starting from this point, let’s go to Late Game where the significance is +15%. We’re going to assume we pulled off the 8-thin and the number of cards left is reflected.

At least 1 trigger check in twin drive with 7 triggers in a 16 card deck: 70%

Very good, and almost +15% over 58.6%. We need another 4% increase which can be gotten from about 2 more thins over Late game. We can assume that we’ll get these in the following turn, so that by the End of the game, we’ve checked roughly an extra three times, virtually. This adds up to being 2 more triggers per game on average.

Tetsu does not approve

I’m not seeing the advantage here.

No, really. Two more triggers in an entire game is not worth an unusual deck list that otherwise sacrifices consistent plays for Deck Thinning. This is the sum of your efforts when you play a deck that specifically aims to thin. Purposefully counting anything below 10 total card thins in one game as an advantage is simply not reflected as advantageous in the numbers. If you put a card in that isn’t as “advantageous as other cards in more consistent ways”; but has the “advantage” of deck thinning, then you’re making a choice that makes your deck worse off on the whole. Until Vanguard gets a deck that deliberately works to thin by more than 10 cards per given game, this is simply not a concept worth bothering to include as part of a Winning Image or strategy.

tldr; 13

What? Yeah. You need to thin 13 or greater cards by the start of Late game in order to make a deck devoted to thinning that has any mathematically significant chance of increasing drive checks of triggers. That’s an absolutely monumental task given the cards that currently exist in Vanguard. And it still relies entirely on chance instead of consistency. Your deck would be a slave to the whims of a poorly-organized Tournament Structure. If you really hate the chance of triggers so much, then I would advise you to play Oracle Think Tank Tsukuyomi build. You’ll need a fairly higher amount of cash for that deck, a much greater understanding of the game and also a well-trained memory.

That having been said, if your deck can naturally thin without sacrificing even a single card choice to that end, then do it. A little bit that’s free should be considered a slight help. Dark Irregulars have Greedy Hand as their starting Vanguard, which can allow you to take excess Grade 1-2s and get them in the soul—which is a skill you’d use naturally. There are other less-potent uses for deck thinning such as getting more shield on average. To be significant, you would need to also thin a decently high amount while running extra 10,000 shields in the deck (which can screw up the Grade Ratio). Decks already naturally do this. Tachikaze uses Blightops to directly search for Shieldon which means not even having to thin for that purpose. Granblue uses Chappie the Ghost in nearly every build to get extra shielding, fill up the Drop Zone toolbox, and thin by 1. With so many natural choices to get around having to manually use brute force thinning to achieve some impotent goal, there yet stands no rational deck strategy for thinning. Keep this in mind any time you next go to appraise a card and count “deck thinning” among the positive aspects. Deck thinning is not “deck winning”.

Memory Mastery

Oracle “Think” Tank. Key word.

Keeping track of everything that’s happening in Vanguard can be a difficult and daunting task. Even in the simplest of decks, you have to keep track of how many triggers you’ve seen of both players, what they were, possibly try to work out how many your opponent will have of each, and keep track of copies of other cards you both have as well. On top of that, you have to make sure you know the card advantage you have over the opponent and you have to remember what cards they’ve drive checked so you know what to expect. Most people don’t even see the point of putting so much work into the game when it’ll be over in 20 minutes anyway and the remembered information will be useless. What’s worse, you can’t bring paper or dice with you to an official Vanguard tournament match because having other objects on the table is a violation of the rules. What if I told you that having a great memory is not some superhuman feat that makes Misaki special? What if I told you, everyone is capable of feats of tremendous memory? Let’s take the red pill.

So memorable <3

I’m going to be honest, becoming good at multitasking and memory is not easy. But it’s not terribly difficult either. All over the world, every year, countries hold Memory Championships like the one in the USA this year. You may think that everyone who showed up, and especially the winner, are all savants from Rain Man who can perform Hollywood style feats of incredible memory. You’d be only half right, and it isn’t the half you think.

They were actually able to remember incredible amounts that boggle the mind, but they weren’t savants. They were normal, average people, most of which probably didn’t have an IQ above average. How can that be? How can someone who forgets where their keys are memorize Pi to obscene digits? The ability to have a great memory is actually not related very much to overall intelligence, so it doesn’t take a genius to remember obscene things. The truth is, everyone already remembers ridiculous amounts of information without realizing it.

Let’s get back on the subject of Vanguard. Do you remember most of the cards you’ve read? I bet if you played with the deck, you do. I bet you know the names of every card in your deck, its Grade, its power, your Grade ratio of the deck, how many triggers of each kind, and the shielding on every card. And at least remember most of what the skills do if you’re new to the game; intermediate and above players will remember all the skills even if not the exact wording. I remember that the Reckless Express in my deck is a Grade 1 5000 shield Spike Brothers Workeroid unit of the Dark Zone nation with 7000 power. It’s pretty easy to remember because I’ve both played with him a lot and he has really cool art.

There are your key words. “Really cool art”. Memory is best when you can associate things with pictures. Especially turning numbers into pictures. That permanent association of 7000 with Reckless Express’ art is very easy for your brain to do. Even the skill just becomes second nature after a single use or two. Vanguard already has a built-in memory improvement system, even more so than other cards games because it has full-art cards. You’re already able to perform feats of extreme memory in your day-to-day life and in Vanguard, you just have to go one step further and learn how to keep track of meta-information.

Like a retarded physician’s map

Since ancient times, there have been methods for remembering very complicated things very easily. One that we still use today is a mnemonic that goes by different names and different forms, but is essentially a number alphabet for turning numbers into pictures. But, there’s no way around this…this is going to seem fucking bizarre.

Each place on the body is mapped to a phonetic sound for association and easy memory. This is called a mnemonic, and they’re essentially ways of easily remembering things by translating the information into a way that’s easier for our brains to understand. One thing we understand and remember very well is our own body, which is why so many mnemonics use fingers, faces, or other body parts. This one is no different. So let’s go over this body map of phonetics.

Digit Phonetic What the fuck?
0 s, z, soft c s is the first letter in sky. z is also the first letter in zero.
1 d, t, th t is for top, as in the top of your brow or head. Associated with eye. d and t both have similar phonetics.
2 n n is for nose.
3 m m is for mouth and luckily, looks like a sideways 3
4 r r is for ribs. Also memorable because r is the last letter of four and capital R sort of looks like a reverse 4.
5 l l is for liver. Capital L is also the Roman numeral for 50, to easily remember 5.
6 j, sh, soft ch, dg, zh, soft g j is for joint, like the joint of your hip. sh, and ch are also related to this phonetic.
7 k, hard c, hard g, q, qu c is for cap, as in your knee cap. What’s important is the hard k sound. g is also related to this phonetic.
8 v, f f is for fibula, the bone in your calf, which ends with f. v and f are nearly identical phonetics. The f in calf becomes a v when plural (calves), for memorizing it.
9 b, p b is for ball, like a football (soccer) you kick with your foot. Or the ball of your foot. p and b both look like inverted 9s.

Now that you are thoroughly confused, let’s begin the process of explaining what the dickins is going on. You probably have no idea what you’re looking at unless you’ve had memory training before. This is essentially a phonetics table for consonant sounds that uses parts of the body to easily remember which number they are associated with. It’s actually very easy once you just remember that system. It probably seems pointless right now but hang in there with me. If you need to know what a number’s consonant sound is, simply start at 0 (above your head) and count “0 sky, 1 top, 2, nose, 3 mouth, 4 rib, 5 liver, 6 joint, 7 cap, 8 fibula, 9 ball”. Once you just do that physically with your hands and body a few times, it’s pretty much permanently ingrained. Now you just remember what phonetics sound like each other. S for Sky and Z are similar, and T, D, and Th for Top are all similar. Just repeat that with the remaining consonant sounds. This takes all of 3 minutes.

Okay here’s where it starts to make sense. What you now do is take a number and convert it into those phonetics. For instance, the number of leaves in Zork: 69105. If you want to easily remember that, you start by converting the numbers.
6, joint, j/ch/sh sound. 9, ball b/p sound. 1, top, t/d/th sounds. 0, sky, s/z sound. 5, liver, l sound.

Now string in whatever vowels you like so long as you make up a bunch of nouns (not other parts of speech). You could get ship dice hole. Okay what am I doing here? I simply start, left to right, and chunk the digits into two. So 69, 10, 5. Then I use the phonetics with a random vowel that makes a word. So 69 or sh and p can become ship. 10 can be d and s or dice. 5 is by itself, so we put a blank _ in front of it. Blanks have a special rule that make them different from simply being 05 or 0n (n is some number). You use the breathy H sound for a blank. So _5 becomes hole. Or hail if you want. Whatever will help you remember. So in my case, there’s a scene being painted. A pirate ship crashes into a gigantic pair of dice iceberg, and a hole rips in the ship! The crazier the scene, the more memorable. No one wants to remember boring every day crap. That’s what makes us think we have bad memories overall. Because those things are boring and uninteresting—trash day isn’t on the top of your list for memorable things. CEO Amaterasu, though, is a badass card with really awesome art so of course you remember her. I bet you’d remember a pirate ship crashing into dice and tearing a hole in the ship too. And since the only nouns are ship, dice, hole, and the phonetics are Sh-P-D-S-_L, you know it’s going to be 69105.

This gets much easier and much faster with practice. Some people even go so far as to create a list of standards words from 00 to 99, and including leading blank words. For a total of 110 words. But they’re all easy to remember nouns like Nut (21, remember n is nose, 2, and t is top, 1). You can do that if you want, since it makes decoding go much faster, and the act of creating each number means that you are associating numbers with pictures, which is the whole point. Training your memory and giving you a useful life skill are going to go a long way to becoming better at not just Vanguard, but all card games.

“Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, Consul for the
third time, built this”

Let’s talk about another system which is called the Method of Loci. It dates back at least as far as Ancient Rome and is used all over the world by many people to remember things. By accident, anyway. Some of us do use it deliberately. The method involves associating things with familiar places to make things easier to remember. It’s easier to remember what flavor cotton candy you got at the Fair than what color car your friend’s mom drives.

This method can be combined with the above method as the “verbs” of your sentence to string together something much more memorable, like we did with the pirate ship hitting an iceberg made of dice. But it’s much more than that, actually. If you’ve ever heard of the term “memory palace”, that’s where this comes from. Essentially, you take a place you know very well, such as your own house (if you’re really good, you can just imagine a new place such as a palace), and each room you walk into, you make something crazy happen. Something so off-the-wall, it’s memorable. Just like before, if you do this enough, you’ll be able to do things like memorize a speech by putting all of your key talking points in the memory palace—a method that’s actually used by people who don’t write their own speeches, to quickly memorize them.

Eventually, you can get to a point where it doesn’t even need to be crazy. Your brain is trained to physically file visual memories away however you want. For instance, when I play Oracle Think Tank, I can walk into a memory palace when I check the top 5 cards, and however many I remove (0-1 depending on if I get a ride), I just sort them in a good order, remember the card art, and visualize that art being hung on the wall of the first room in my palace. That door has a number 1 on it.

The next door down (to my left), will have the next stack like this, but in between are either card art or backs of cards hanging on the wall medians that represent things I drew, damaged, cycled or whatever in the meantime. And I continue this for rooms 2 and 3. After that is a big room with no label that has groups of cards organized on the floor to help remember how many cards I have left until I reach the stack. And each time a new card leaves the deck, I simply move one over to the pile in my mind. It’s so much easier than it sounds, and some people can even skip the previous method and go straight to the method of loci. For those of you who haven’t yet trained your memory, a good method is starting by using phonetics for how many cards are left in the stack. You’ll never need to go above like 38 really, since you draw an opening hand of 6 from 49, then reveal the top 5 to start the stack anyway. This becomes very easy if you use as many unique art triggers as possible. So if you run 4 draw triggers, just run around 1 copy of each to make it easier for you to track (and hard for your opponent to guess the number of them).

>Deck stacking is legal in Vanguard

Once you start your deck-stacking, just remember 38 or MF, or muff like earmuffs. If you imagine feeling the earmuffs, then you can just remember that, and during your opponent’s turn just count how many you lose normally. If you damage check 1, for example, on your next turn, you draw 1, then drive check. Now you can just subtract that 3 from muff and get 35 or mole. Just imagine there’s a big mole on your face and you’re suddenly embarrassed of it. You see how easy this gets. All you’re doing is converting the number left in the stack into a picture, then counting real numbers on your opponent’s turn, then updating your picture on your turn. Once you get to House (_0) or Hat (_1) you know that Twin Drive will start hitting your stacked triggers.

As for remembering the actual stack itself, you’d use the Method of Loci (locus for singular), then you simply walk around somewhere familiar (or somewhere you imagine) while associating the 4-5 cards with those places. The reason I start with room 1 and move to the left, is because your stacks will be in reverse order chunks of 4-5. Reverse order is very key here. When I get ready to come back on the stack, I just walk down the hallway, ignore the pictures on the wall, open door number 1, look at the paintings on the wall, and plan strategies accordingly. Then as I move through the hallway, I ignore the paintings on those walls and focus on only the ones inside the doors. The big door at the end is probably the most difficult since the various stacked 1-times (skills like Tsukuyomi or Blue Eyes) can get a bit cluttered, but mostly, you won’t have to use them since going off with stacked triggers is pretty devastating. You get a lot of offense very quickly and a lot of defense too.

So take these two methods, the Phonetic Numbers and the Method of Loci and practice them with Tsukuyomi. Even if you don’t have the deck, you can further increase your memory by mentally proxying other cards that have the same Grades and power. If you just memorize all the skills and what the proxies are, then you start practicing turning the numbers left-until-the-stack into pictures, while also using a memory palace to remember the stack itself, I promise you will become much better at Vanguard. You can start off slow, so that it doesn’t seem as daunting, by just practicing mentally proxying some other clan. Get a decklist ready, gather same-grade, same-power cards in your collection (try to get the same number of each for each copy of the proxy card) and just remember what they are. Play with them a few times. Once you get good with that (should take 1-3 games, easy) just proxy in Tsukuyomi and start turning numbers into pictures. Don’t worry about the stack at all. Focus on turning numbers into pictures. Once you do that, just add another layer by walking through a memory palace of the stacked cards. With very little practice at all, you’ll be able to simultaneously:

  • Mentally proxy an entire deck
  • Memorize all the cards that you’ve seen at any point in the game and when they appeared
  • Know how many cards until the stack
  • Name every card in the stack in reverse-chunk order
  • Mentally proxy multiple decks that you switch out modularly in your mind
  • Memorize every card that your opponent has played as well

Remember, even though Misaki is a fake character in an anime, she is not special and doesn’t have super powers. You’re completely capable of the same “perfect memory” as her. Some people are born with an easier time of it, but everyone can practice it to develop mastery. You already had to memorize the rules of Vanguard, your card skills, and most other card skills just to be competent at the game. Just take it one step further.

What’s wrong with this picture

What’s wrong with this picture?

The Cardfight Wikia is actually using my custom clan icons for Gold Paladin, Narukami, and Angel Feather.

Someone seriously thought these were legit and official. I’m super flattered and boy I love that those are popular enough to put on the wiki, but unless you want to be dishonest, those aren’t official.

But I have to say, this is totally amazing and awesome. I feel awesome.

Shielding Stages

Something you may have noticed if you look at Vangaurd cards for more than three minutes is that shields come in one of four varieties: 0, 5000, 10000, and none at all. The stages of shielding typically revolve around increments of 5000 and I’ve touched on the subject of how to best make use of this if you’re the attacker, but now it’s time to go over this for when you’re the defending player. It’s likely that your opponent has rigged their battlefield to be highly scalable and optimized for attacking you in “stages” of a shield. Staging shields is a common and very effective guarding technique that directly counter-acts the previous strategy of an optimized attacking field. For instance; Read more

Card Advantage

This article was previously absolutely pitiful. It’s been entirely overhauled by fixing errors, adding up to date relevant examples, and explaining a lot of more nuanced and new concepts having to do with advantage.

The TCG-obligatory “Card Advantage” article. I’m going to make this really short and to the point because so many card games already have hundreds of articles on this concept that it’s really not necessary to spend three paragraphs telling you what it is, then convincing you it’s right, then going into excruciating detail about it. What is Card Advantage? It started back in the Magic the Gathering community when some smart people figured out that having more cards than the opponent leads, on average, to victory. Given that all players are competent and playing the best decks, it’s supposed to be a mental equalizer that tests the limits of two duelists. Read more

Subgame Theory

Whoa, that’s a pretty presumptuous image header. Did I really just dare to compare even part of the almighty Chess to Vanguard? Well, yes. Once you get past the random chance, they’re not all that far apart, really. The fluff of both games is that two leaders meet in battle with units of various power, and they vie for control of the board, taking each other out along the way. In truth, many games since Chess’s creation have been either homages to it or have used ideas directly from this mammoth world of strategic gameplay. Vanguard just happens to be one of them. Read more

Shuffling: Randomization

I will try to make this one quick since it’s less of a full dissertation and more of a how-to. Before I tell you how to sufficiently randomize, let’s discuss what that even means. So randomization is actually a very un-oft understood concept. Mostly, randomization is confused with pseudo-randomization—a type of randomization that computers and people are forever beholden to. True randomization is actually something you’re more likely to study in a Quantum Physics class than a statistics or Economics class. Radioactive decay is a great example of this because it provides a completely knowable probability expectancy, but it’s still uncertain. The degree of randomness something holds is based on its absolute uncertainty. This principle is what makes pseudo-random generators that computers use, non-random. They’re generated in a predictable fashion using a mathematical formula. This is fine for some things, but drawing cards from the deck is more like a lottery and less like a casual game of computer solitaire. Poker champions and casinos take the concept of sufficiently randomized decks seriously. Read more

Calculating Chance

Chance Card!

Let’s get something out of the way before we delve into the fathomless depths of strategic gameplay in articles to come. Vanguard contains trigger cards which activate any time there is a “check” to the top of the deck. Some of you would say that this game is “luck based” but before I dispel this myth, I have to clear up a bit about terminology. The word luck actually carries a supernatural definition and implies that an unseen guiding force is directing your life. It actually has nothing to do with probability or scientifically observable chance. Since I’m not delusional, I will not be calling the outcomes of randomness and uncertainty “luck” but rather I will be using the proper term: chance. To those of you whom the education system in your country has failed; and you believe that chance is not measurable or that math and science have nothing to say about elements of randomness—you could not be more wrong.

There are entire fields dedicated to the calculation of chance. In Probability Theory, you learn how to determine the elements of chance and combine them in various useful ways. In Quantum Theory, you learn how random chance affects our universe at very tiny levels and drives literally everything in reality. In Game Theory, you learn how to take elements of random chance and make strategic choices based on the best average outcome given those chances. There are many decades and many greater minds that have all measured chance and pioneered humanity based on taming the wild beast called “randomness”. Read more